Transition Words, Time-Order words(つなぎ言葉、接続詞)

They help move the story forward and show the order of events.   話の流れを助ける言葉



Beginning

First

Once

One time

To begin

To start

Initially
In the beginning

It started when

First of all

Once upon a time

One morning

One day

One night





Middle

Then

Next

Later

Second

Also

Soon

As soon as
After that

Suddenly

Before long

Later that day / night

In the meantime

Meanwhile

Unfortunately



End

Finally

Last

At least
In the end

At the end of the

Eventually

As a result



ESL Personal Narrative Writing for kids, Tell your story 英作文 体験談の書き方

ESL Personal Narrative Writing for kids, Tell your story 英作文 体験談の書き方

Personal narrative: Tell your story

Personal narrative 本人の事実・経験に基づく話、物語、体験談。印象的な出来事(event)が起こるまでを時間に沿って古いものから順番に書く(chronological order)。出来事が起こった時間や場所(setting)、登場人物(character)を読み手(reader)に書き手(author)の気持ちの変化が伝わるように書く。


A personal narrative is a way of sharing a particularly memorable event or of telling about important feelings. It tells the reader how the writer felt about an experience.

Making an outline will help you create a well-organized piece of writing containing main topics, subtopics, and details.

Visual organizer will help your writing.

Writing sample “Ann”
https://k12.thoughtfullearning.com/studentmodels/ann

Choose a Topic


Begin by brainstorming a list of memorable events from your life. Think about which event would be most interesting to your readers. Also, think about which event you remember the most vividly.

題材は身の回りのことで印象的なできごとをリストにしてその中から選ぶ。その中から読み手が面白いと思うような題材はどれか考える。気持ちや感情が変化して思い出に残っているできごとがよい。

Topic 題材


For example (参考例):
My first day of school.
My most exciting day of school.
A field trip that my class took.
My favorite summer vacation.
A trip that included something unexpected or surprising.
A time that I experienced something spooky.
A time that I experienced something truly frightening.
A time that I learned something new that changed me in some way.
The moment when I met someone who changed my life.
The day that I got my first pet.

Organize Sequence


話の流れを整理する




Describe Event


Pre-writing: Write the most important event in the order that they happened.
As later adding details in each happening, in this stage keep simple but make clear beginning, middle, and end.

Details: Descriptive words and sentence
下書き:First Next Last で、できごとの重要な点を時間の経過とともに書く。
あとで詳しい内容を付け加えてそれぞれの具体的にする。


Transition words Event, happening Zoom in detail
First,
Beginning

2nd paragraph
she was sick. She invited me to go swimming every summer. But she could not get in the water.
Next,
Middle

3rd paragraph
She was always there for me always listened to me when I had a problem. She would let me come in her house, and she would give me something to eat.
Last,
End

4th paragraph
she died. My mom did not let me go to the visitation at the funeral home or to the funeral ceremony.



Transition words and Time-Order words (つなぎ言葉)


They help move the story forward and show the order of events.
話の流れを助ける言葉

First
Then
Next
After
Last
Finally
yesterday
tomorrow
before one day later
as soon as … more



In the story “Ann”
Last summer
Two weeks after
not too long after that
Now, it’s been a year since Ann’s death

Introduction(イントロ): The first paragraph


ストーリーの最初の2−3文で読者を掴む 
Readerが先を続けて読みたいと思うような書き方にする。


Write main idea of personal narrative
First few sentences of your story
Opening or lead
Hook the reader

How to “Hook” the reader (つかみ)


Question: Have you ever been late to school?
Talking: “Wake up!” my mom shouted.
Sound: Onomatopoeia, “Breeeeing” rang the alarm.


In the story “Ann”
Do you have a friend who loves you? Well, I did.

Setting: Where and When (place and time)


Where did it happen?
Night? day? winter? summer?

When did it happen?
in the house, in the city? park?

Characters


Describe the characters(登場人物)
Trait (性格・人柄)and Emotion:
What does your character do to show his/her personality?
What does your character look like on the outside?
What does your character say to show his/her personality?
How does your character change or what lesson does your character learn?


In the story “Ann”
Name: Ann
Relationship: very close friend
Appearance: bright blue eyes and curly gray hair
Trait: kind 

Trait Detail
Ann was very kind. She was always there for me when I needed help on homework or had problems at school.




How characters feel


love
miss

Show, don’t tell, how characters feel


Write with more sensory detail, allowing your reader to hear, see, taste, touch, and smell the same things your characters are experiencing.
気持ちを書くときには、行動や様子をいっしょに書いたり、たとえを使って表すとよい。

I was so excited. I jumped up in the air!
I couldn’t wait! I smiled the whole way there.


In the story “Ann”
We had a lot of fun all those summers.
My heart broke.


Other things to find out details
What characters do, step by step?
What characters say?
What characters are thinking?



Write closing (5th paragraph)


まとめ 最も言いたいことを言葉を変えて言う(パラフレーズ)


Ending, conclusion
Wrap up your story
Remind the reader of your main idea


Rephrase your opening (自分の考え、主張)
Say it with different words (イントロの言い換え)
Feelings (感情)
Lesson learned (学んだこと)
Hope about future (どうしたいか)
Update (後日談、近況)


Revise 見直しCheck


Revising: to make significant changes to the content of their writing


Organization
Make sense? (話のつながりはおかしくないか?)
Is it important? (余計な話が入ってないか?)


Add word? Adjective, adverb, add detail
Remove words?
Word choice


Change boring words
Use vivid verbs
Check Thesaurus https://kidthesaurus.com


Sentence structure
Check verb tense






Editing (Fixing mistake)


Spelling
Punctuation 文の最後にピリオドを付けているか?
Capitalization ”I” 文の最初 名前 地名
Sight words
Grammar (i.e. subject-verb agreement)
Check S V O 誰が(S)何を(O)どうする(V)



Make Title of your story


Title represent the main idea of your story.


Publish


If you want to make a book, you can make a cover and add illustration.
Type out or write in your best handwriting your story. Make a neat final copy of your narrative writing.
Illustration: Neat and details
Cover: Title and author (your name) and detailed picture
Title is the biggest words on the cover.

Writing sample “Ann”
https://k12.thoughtfullearning.com/studentmodels/ann

Tag questions, 付加疑問文 でしょ? だよね?She’s Italian, isn’t she?

付加疑問文(Tag questions)は確認や念押し、同意を求める時に使われる。

「~でしょ?」「~だよね?」


Point: 文末に付け加える主語は代名詞にする。


Positive sentences, with negative tags
肯定文+,否定形 + 主語(代名詞)?


Present simple ‘be’ She’s Italian, isn’t she?
Present simple other verbs They live in London, don’t they?
Present continuous We’re working tomorrow, aren’t we?
Past simple ‘be’ It was cold yesterday, wasn’t it?
Past simple other verbs He went to the party last night, didn’t he?
Past continuous We were waiting at the station, weren’t we?
Present perfect They’ve been to Japan, haven’t they?
Present perfect continuous She’s been studying a lot recently, hasn’t she?
Past perfect He had forgotten his wallet, hadn’t he?
Past perfect continuous We’d been working, hadn’t we?
Future simple She’ll come at six, won’t she?
Future continuous They’ll be arriving soon, won’t they?
Future perfect They’ll have finished before nine, won’t they?
Future perfect continuous She’ll have been cooking all day, won’t she?
Modals can He can help, can’t he?
Modals must John must stay, mustn’t he?






Negative sentences, with positive tags
否定形+,肯定文 + 主語(代名詞)?


Present simple ‘be’ We aren’t late, are we?
Present simple other verbs She doesn’t have any children, does she?
Present continuous The bus isn’t coming, is it?
Past simple ‘be’ She wasn’t at home yesterday, was she?
Past simple other verbs They didn’t go out last Sunday, did they?
Past continuous You weren’t sleeping, were you?
Present perfect She hasn’t eaten all the cake, has she?
Present perfect continuous He hasn’t been running in this weather, has he?
Past perfect We hadn’t been to London before, had we?
Past perfect continuous You hadn’t been sleeping, had you?
Future simple They won’t be late, will they?
Future continuous He won’t be studying tonight, will he?
Future perfect She won’t have left work before six, will she?
Future perfect continuous He won’t have been travelling all day, will he?
Modals She can’t speak Arabic, can she?
Modals They mustn’t come early, must they?


Special exception: the question tag after I am is aren’t I.

For example: I’m in charge of the food, aren’t I?


Let’s, had better

Let’s go, shall we? let’s = let us
He’d better do it, hadn’t he? he had better (no auxiliary)



命令文(imperative) + tag question
ただの命令文よりも丁寧な印象


Take a seat, won’t you? polite invitation
Help me, can you? quite friendly
Help me, can’t you? quite friendly (some irritation?)
Close the door, would you? quite polite
Do it now, will you. less polite
Don’t forget, will you. with negative imperatives only will is possible


He never came again, did he?

She can rarely come these days, can she?

You hardly ever came late, did you?

I barely know you, do I?

You would scarcely expect her to know that, would you?